- Study of parts of compound microscope.
- Study of motosis in onion root tip and animal cell of grasshopper (Locust).
- Study of meriosis in onion floral buds and testis of grasshopper. (Locust)
- Study of cyclosis in leaf cell of hydrilla or Tradescatia and in Paramoecium.
- Study of cell wall components (cellulose, lignin, suberin and mucilage)
- To study mitochondria by staining with Jenus green.
- To study chemical test of sugar, starch, lipid and protein.
- Study of plant specimens and identification with reasons.
-Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Mush room/bracket fungi yeast, Usnea, Riccia, Moss, Fern, pinus or cycus, Maize, Sunflower.
- Study of characters of animal - specimens and identification with reasons.
-Amoeba, Sponge, Hydra, Liver Fluke, Ascaris, Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm, Spder, Honey bee, Snail, Starfish, Shark, Frog, Lizard, Pegion, Rabbit.
- Study of analysis of seed samples for mendelian ratios.
- Study of different modifications in root, stem and leaf.
- Study of different types of inflorescence.
- Study of structure of following flowers sun flower, Pea, Mustard, Petunia, Onion, Wheat, Paddy.
- Study of plant tissues from prepared slides.
-Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem, Phloem.
- Study of transverse section of monocot and dicot root and stem.
- Study of animal tissues through temporary or permanent slides.
-Squamose epithelium, muscle fibres.
-Nerve fibres, mammalian blood cells.
- Study of external and internal body-structure of earthworm, cockroach, Frog and rat by models.
Unit : 6 Physiology of Plants
-Cell as a functional unit, Composition of protoplasm; water relations; Absorption and conduction (Diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, permeability, water potential, absorption)
Theories of ascent of sap - root pressure, suction force transpiration - importance.
Factors affecting rate o transpiration; mechanism of stomatal opening and closing; (Potassium ion theory); factors affecting movement of guard cells.
-Mineral absorption - functions of mineral elements; essential major elements and trace elements; deficiency symphoms of elements; theories of translocation; translocation of solutes; Nitrogen metabolism, Nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation.
-Photosynthesis - signifcance; site of photosynthesis (functional importance of chlorophyll structure) photochemical and bio synthetic phases. Electron transport system;
Photo phosphorylation (cyclic and noncyclic)
C3 and C4 metabolic pathway; photo respiration, factors affecting - photosynthesis; mode of nutrition (Autotrophic, heterotrophic, saprophytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants) chemosynthetic nutrition.
Unit : 7 Physiology of Animals
- Nutrition and its types; nutrients food and vitamins; digestive system of invertebrate (Cockroach)
Digestive system and digestion process in humans (ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, formation of faecal matter, defecation) (Intra cellular and extra cellular); role of enzymes and hormones in digestion.
Malnutrition and under nutrition; disorder related to nutrition.
- Gaseous exchange in animals (Earthworm, Cockroach)
- Respiration in humans; respiratory organs; mechanism of respiration.
- Breathing and its regulation; transport of gases through blood; common respiratory disorders, prevention and cure.
- Circulation of body Fluids - Open circulatory system in coc kroach; closed circulatory system in humans; Blood and its composition and beating process; pulmonary and systemic circulation; Heart beat and pulse; rhythmicity of heart, beat.
Blood related disorders - Hypertention, atheroma, and arteriosclerosis;
ECG - Pace maker; lymphatic system; immunity, immune system.
- Elimination of nitrogenous excretory substances - Amnotelism, Ureotelism, Urecotelism Excretory system of cockroach and humans Composition and formation of urine.
- Role of kidney in osmoregulation, Kidney failure; dialysis, Kidney-transplantation, Role of ADH, role of skin and lungs.
- Locomotion and movements -
- Human skeleton, axial and appendicular, Cranium and cage bones; Joints and their types Bone, Cartilage and their disorders (Carthritis, osteoporosis) Mechanism of muscle contraction.
- Nervous system of Cockroach and humans.
- Human nervous system; structure and function of brain and spinalcord, conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; Sensory organs - -structure and function of eye, ear, nose, tongue.
- Human endocrine system - Hormones and their functions; hormonal regulation and diseases; hormones as neurotransmitters and regulators; Hypothelamo – hypophysial axis, feed back controls.